New technology and development trend of fire safety

Abstract:With the development of my country's society and economy, the process of urbanization has further accelerated, resulting in a concentrated outbreak of urban fires. These complex changes have made the city's fire safety situation more severe, and there is an urgent need to develop appropriate fire protection technology, and the advancement of fire protection science and technology is an important driving force and guarantee for the development of fire protection. Based on this, this article studies the new technologies and development trends of fire safety.


development trend of new fire safety technology

With the development of my country's society and economy, the process of urbanization has further accelerated, and urban fires have shown new characteristics, that is, the concentration of modern urban population, buildings, wealth, and production and business sites has led to concentrated outbreaks of urban fires. These complex changes have made the city's fire safety situation more severe, and there is an urgent need to develop suitable new fire fighting technologies. Fire science and technology is an important driving force and guarantee for advancing the development of fire protection. The development of fire protection in developed countries largely relies on technological innovation and the establishment of a fire safety and disaster prevention system based on modern science and technology. Its main feature is that science and technology play an important role in fire protection. Knowledge innovation and technology The results are transformed into realistic comprehensive fire protection capabilities. Strengthening the basic construction of fire fighting at the grass-roots level is to find the entry point, integration point and focus of fire fighting technology, actively promote and apply advanced science and technology, and strengthen the research of fire safety technology.

New Fire Safety Technology

A.New fire extinguishing technology

1.Throwing fire extinguisher
Throwing fire extinguisher is a liquid fire extinguishing agent packaged in soft and transparent resin. Its fire extinguishing principle is: the fire extinguishing fluid is scattered from the resin thrown near the fire source, and the combustion material is cooled due to the evaporation of water; the ammonium phosphate contained in the fire extinguishing agent It interacts with the main fire extinguishing agent to produce ammonia, which can form a negative catalyst for the chain reaction of combustion. At the same time, the sodium bicarbonate contained in the fire extinguishing agent generates carbon dioxide after being heated, which blocks the contact of the combustion surface with oxygen and inhibits the occurrence of combustion; sodium sulfate is also added to the fire extinguishing agent to increase the ignition point of the burning material. It is not easy to burn and has the effect of preventing re-ignition. This kind of fire extinguisher has the characteristics of safety (no explosion), environmental protection (liquid without any toxicity), long shelf life (natural storage for 5 years), easy to use, etc., and it can be used in precision instrument rooms, data rooms, engine rooms, households, etc. Effective fire extinguisher.

2.Water mist fire extinguishing technology
A German company developed a knapsack pulse air pressure spray water gun. This water gun uses the instantaneous impact of the impact gas to atomize the water into fine water mist droplets with a particle size of less than 0.30mm, which greatly improves the fire extinguishing efficiency of the water. . Because of its high efficiency and high mobility, it has been adopted by fire departments in some countries.

3.Ball fire extinguishing device
The sphere fire extinguishing device invented by the United Kingdom can extinguish the fire immediately after it breaks out. The fire extinguishing device is an inflatable ball with two thin layers. The inner ball is filled with inert gas in a compressed state. The inner ball thin layer is made of non-porous plastic with low thermal resistance; the outer ball thin layer is made of harder texture. It is made of plastic (such as phosphate) with many small holes scattered on the surface. The working principle of the device is: the thin layer of the inner ball shrinks when heated, so that the inert gas is released through the small holes in the outer layer and the flame is extinguished. The hollow fire extinguishing ball with two thin layers can be sprayed directly at the flame or scattered around the fire field. If multiple layers of spheres are made of different plastics, the inert gas can be released at intervals. If the gas fails to extinguish the flame, each layer of spheres will continue to spray inert gas to extinguish the flame. The inventor of this technology believes that these spheres can be injected into the fire extinguisher, or scattered on the roof or attic, etc., because they will also play an unexpected role in these places, that is, through their thermal insulation properties, make the house warm in winter. It is cool in summer and the temperature is kept moderate, which can be described as a dual purpose.

4. Supersonic fire extinguishing technology
Aerospace technology is a high-tech achievement of mankind. The application of high-speed aerodynamic technology of jet aircraft and missiles to the field of fire protection has been a research topic for scientific and technological workers for many years. The supersonic fire extinguishing technology is a small fire extinguishing equipment powered by the gas injected by a micro nozzle of aerospace technology and solid powder as the main fire extinguishing agent. It uses a combination of chemical and physical methods to cut and suppress the flame activation chain, which can be effective Put out the first class A and B fires.

5. New fire protection technology
The hypoxia fire prevention system is mainly composed of an air compressor, a hypoxia fireproof gas generator, an oxygen volume fraction detector, an area control valve, an air supply pipeline, and a hypoxia fire prevention system control cabinet. Among them, the low-oxygen fire-proof gas generator and oxygen volume fraction detector are the main equipment of the system. Through the use of membrane air separation technology and oxygen volume fraction measurement technology, the oxygen volume fraction in the protection zone is reduced and maintained at 15.0%---16.8%. In this environment, most combustibles cannot be ignited, but personnel can compare Survive safely for a long time.

B. New material technology

New materials refer to materials that have emerged or are in development and have excellent properties and special functions that traditional materials do not have, such as nanometre materials, new functional materials, high-performance structural materials, and smart materials. In recent years, the new materials that have appeared and obtained applications in the field of fire safety mainly include new flame-retardant and fire-resistant materials, shape memory alloy materials, light-storing luminescent materials, and metal porous materials. Taking shape memory alloy as an example, this material can be used as a temperature sensing material and used in automatic fire alarm, automatic spraying and other systems. The engineering and technical personnel of the National BERTEL Columbus Laboratory use TIONI metallurgy as the temperature sensing element of the automatic sprinkler. When the temperature rises to a predetermined value, the alloy shrinks and the nozzle starts to sprinkle; when the temperature drops, the memory alloy returns to its original shape and the valve automatically Turn off and stop spraying water to avoid too much water soaking the room.

C. Modern communication technology

Fire communication and network systems play an important role in fire prevention, fire fighting and rescue command, and daily management of dispatching. An accurate communication system can greatly improve the communication efficiency of the fire department and reduce the casualties and property losses in the fire. Spatial information technology mainly includes theories and technologies such as GPS, GIS and RS, combined with computer technology and communication technology for spatial data collection, measurement, analysis, storage, management, display, dissemination, and application. Currently there are 1 19 command systems in existing applications.

The development trend of fire safety technology

1.Green fire protection technology

Combining the concept of green technology with the field of fire protection can lead to a new concept of green fire technology, that is, fire technology that meets the requirements of environmental protection and does not cause harm to public health and the environment. Green fire fighting technology mainly includes two aspects: new clean fire fighting technology and green flame retardant technology. The focus of future research on green flame-retardant technology should be to develop new environmentally friendly low-smoke, low-toxic and non-products, using environmentally friendly chemical reactions, using non-toxic and harmless raw materials, solvents and catalysts in the process, and easy recycling of flame-retardant products Carried out and environmentally friendly. As mentioned earlier, nanotechnology will play a major role in the development of green flame retardant technology.

2.Nanometre Fire Fighting Technology

Nanotechnology refers to the study of the properties and interactions of substances (including the manipulation of atoms and molecules) on the nanometre scale (1~100nm), as well as the multidisciplinary science and technology that utilizes these properties. The rapid development of nanotechnology will bring about revolutionary changes in almost all industrial fields in the 21st century, even in the field of urban fire safety. Making fire detectors is one of the most promising application areas of nanometre materials. At present, gas sensors that have been put into practical use include sensors made of Sn film. Nanometre fire detectors and alarms have two advantages:-Very short response time, which can achieve very early warning; second, the material selection is very high, which can greatly improve the accuracy of prediction.

3. Intelligent control technology

In order to detect fires early and call the police in time, and minimize casualties and property losses, many developed countries have adopted laws to promote the installation of single-point fire detection alarms in residential homes and small business sites. According to relevant information, 82% of households in London, England have installed single-point fire detection alarms. In the United States, most supermarkets sell single-point fire detectors at 5 to 7 yuan per fabric. The independent single-point fire detector has the advantages of no wiring, convenient installation and maintenance, and simultaneous sound and light alarm. It is not only suitable for new buildings, but also for disaster detection and alarm in existing buildings.


Fire-fighting technology is a huge field of practical technology. With the development and integration of various high and new technologies, fire protection technology has shown a development trend of marginalization, refinement, intersecting and high-end development, and there is huge room for development. In the future, the international firefighting technology community will attach great importance to firefighting decision-making technology. Active firefighting technologies such as firefighting and detection will have an absolute advantage in firefighting technology innovation. The overall development of firefighting technology will tend to be integrated and intelligent-this is the country's firefighting technology. Development provides a clear direction.


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Post time: Dec-08-2021